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Direct and Residual Effects of Green and Chicken Manures on Properties of Desert Plain Soils and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield in the Northern State, Sudan

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dc.contributor.author Mohamed, Imran Ali Ahmed
dc.date.accessioned 2018-07-23T10:23:10Z
dc.date.available 2018-07-23T10:23:10Z
dc.date.issued 2017-07-23
dc.identifier.uri http://repo.uofg.edu.sd/handle/123456789/896
dc.description A Thesis Submitted to the University of Gezira in Fulfillment of the Requirements forAward of the Degree of Doctor of Philosoph Soil Science(Soil Reclamatio Department of Soiland Water Science Faculty of Agricultural Sciences ,July/ 2017 en_US
dc.description.abstract Most of the agricultural soils in the Northern State are located in the marginal lands (desert plain soils). Studies and surveys done showed that most of these soils are unsuitable for agricultural purposes unless their soil chemical and physical fertility are cured through reclamation. This study was conducted for three successive seasons 2014/15 (direct effect), 2015/16 (direct and residual effect) and 2016/17 (residual effect) on a desert soil with the aim to investigate direct and residual effects of green and chicken manuring with three levels on the soil properties of desert soils and performance of wheat crop in the Northern State of Sudan. The experiment consisted of five types of organic manure: four types of green manure Vigna radiate (Green gram), Vigna sinensis (Cowpea), Dolichos Lablab (Lablab bean) and Sesbania canabina (Sesbania pea) were selected as green manure corps and chicken manure, with three levels. The first level was the recommended seed rate and dose: seed rate of 12 kg ha-1, 18 kg ha-1, 24 kg ha-1 , 12 kg ha-1 for green manure crops respectively and 4ton ha-1 for chicken manure. The second level was two times of the first level and third level was three times of the first level. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Land preparation was done manually for the residual effects of green and chicken manures so as not to disturb the treatments which were fixed in the same plots of the first application of the manures. The results showed that the direct and residual effects of green and chicken manures were effective in improving the soil physical and chemical properties. The soil bulk density was highly significantly reduced while the percentage of soil moisture was highly significantly increased in response to application of green and chicken manures. Also the organic manure application improved the soil moisture retention and the available water as well and decreased soil infiltration rate. Although the effect of the studied manures on the soil chemical properties was not so prominent as that for the physical properties, yet a minor increase in organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and CEC were observed with application of the manures. Green and chicken manures and their residuals improved nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by wheat plant. The result also showed that each of the investigated manures very highly significantly improved plant height, length of spike, number of seeds per spike, number of spikes per squared meter, number of tillers per squared meter, days to 50% heading, days to 80% maturity, 1000- seeds weight, grain yield and harvest index. The results showed that the effect of organic manure levels were not significantly effective on soil properties and growth and yield of wheat. It is concluded that organic manures can be ranked according to their effectiveness in improving the soil properties and increasing the yield of wheat crop as follows: the chicken manure treatments, then the best type of green manure treatments was green gram followed by cowpea and sisbania pea with no significant differences among them and lastly the lablab bean treatments which showed significantly lower effect than the other manures. It is recommended that 4 ton ha-1 chicken manure or one of each green manure crops: green gram with seed rate 12 kg ha-1 , cowpea with seed 18 kg ha-1 or sesbania pea with seed 12 kg ha-1 can be applied to reclaim these desert plain soils and increasing wheat yield en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Muawia E. Hamad Main -Supervisor Mahamoud M. Ahmed Co - supervisor en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Gezira en_US
dc.subject the agricultural soils en_US
dc.subject Organic fertilizers en_US
dc.title Direct and Residual Effects of Green and Chicken Manures on Properties of Desert Plain Soils and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yield in the Northern State, Sudan en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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